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 合同英语特色介绍
 国际商标许可合同格式
 中外合资经营合同格式
 读懂英文合同
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合同英语特色介绍

作者:不详 [加入]

看了之后明白了很多英文“之乎者也”所对应的现代文泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,对合同英语的结构和特色也有了大概的了解泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。值得一看泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

Contract 与 Agreement的有无区别
在英语中泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,合同一般称为Contract泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,协议一般称为Agreement泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

何谓“contract”?

1999年中国《合同法》第二条对contract定义为: A contact in this Law refers to an agreement establishing, modifying and terminating the civil rights and obligations between subjects of equal footing, that is, between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。根据这一定义泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,合同平等主体之间设立的确定民事权利和义务的协议泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。 ,

Steven H. Gifts编著的“Law Dictionary”中将contract 定义为“contract is a promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives remedy, or the performance of the which the law in some way recognize as a duty.”根据这一定义,合同是一种承诺泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,违反承诺可以得到法律救助泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,某种意义上法律将履行该承诺看做是一种补偿。

L.B Curzon 在其编撰的字典“A Dictionary of Law”给contract的定义:“Contract is a legally binding agreement”根据这一定义泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,合同就是有法律约束力的协议。

综合起来泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,有一个相同点泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,就是“Contract is an agreement”,即可将合同说成是“An agreement which binds the parties concerned”或者说合同说成是“An agreement which is enforceable by law”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载, 也可以说:Contracts are promises that the law will enforce。

何谓“Agreement”?

L.B “A consensus of mind, or evidence of such consensus, in spoke or written form, relating to anything done or to be done.”

根据这一定义,协议是对已经做或准备做的相关事宜泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,经过谈判泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、协商后取得一致意见泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,以口头或书面形式做出的约定。

Black "Law Dictionary"有两个定义。一个是:“A concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performance”根据这一定义,协议即双方或多方京某些过去或将来某些事实的相关权利、义务或相关权利泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、义务的履行而达成的一致理解和愿望泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

另一个是:“The consent of two or more persons concurring respecting the transmission of some property, right or benefits, with the view of contacting an obligation, a mutual obligation.”根据这一定义泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,协议即两个或多个当事人泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,为了约定单方责任或相互责任泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,就财产权利泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、利益的转移取得的一致同意泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

Contract(合同)和Agreement(协议)是不是可以互换呢泛亚电竞app|最新版下载?

合同的成立必须具备几个主要因素。它们(要约和承诺构成的)协议泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、约因、设立法律关系的愿望和缔约能力四大部分组成泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

L.B Curzon编著的“A Diction of Law”提到:“Contract generally involves”

1. offer and absolute and unqualified acceptance (要约和绝对接受)
2. consensus ad idem (意思表示一致泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载, 也叫meeting of minds)
3. intention to create legal relations (建立合同关系的意愿)
4. genuineness of consent (同意的真实性)
5. contractual capacity of the parties (合同当事人的缔约能力)
6. legality of object(标的物的合法性)
7. possibility of performance (履行的可能性)
8. certainty of terms(条款的确定性)
9. valuable consideration(等价有偿)

Black 'Law Dictionary" 中解释道:Although often used as synonyms with "contract", agreement is a broader term, e.g. an agreement might lack an essential element of a contact."

即“协议”和“合同”经常用作同义词泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,但“协议”这一术语含义更广泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,例如协议可能缺乏合同的必备条款(essential clauses/provisions)泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

实际使用当中泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,协议可不受必备条款的限制,而称为合同的文体肯定少不了必备条款泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,有的合同将其单列,称为一般条款(General provisions)泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。 ,

1999中国《合同法》第十二条规定了八项一般条款,分别是:
1. title or name and domicile of the parities(当事人的名称或姓名和住址)
2. contract object(标的)
3. quantity(数量)
4. quality(质量)
5. price or remuneration(价款或者报酬)
6. time limit, place and method of performance (履行期限、地点和方式)
7. liability for breach of contract(违约责任)
8. methods to settle disputes (解决争议的方法)

上述解释说明泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,contract(合同)和agreement(协议)的概念虽然接近泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,但使用范围不同泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,不能互换使用。合同是协议的重要组成部分泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,所有合同一定是协议,而协议不见得都是合同泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载》貉堑缇篴pp|最新版下载?梢运稻弑负贤闪⒁蟮木哂星恐浦葱辛Φ男椴攀呛贤。

结构特点

合同类法律文件用以规定当事人的权利与义务泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,是预防与解决争议的依据。合同英语行文慎密而准确,历史悠久泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,深含法律文化底蕴泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

中文的合同开头一般先罗列当事人的名称、姓名泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、住所或营业场所泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,然后是合同正文泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,结尾是当事人印章泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、授权代表签字、职务及签字日期。而英语合同一般以下面这类句式为开头:

This agreement/contract is made and entered in to this ____ day of _____(month), _______ (year) by and between Party A (hereinafter called " Party A ")and Party B(hereinafter called " Party B ")

然后是开始陈述:

WHEREAS…THEREFORE

… It is hereby agreed as follows:

或以:

WITNESSETH, WHEREAS…

NOW THEREFORE, for and in consideration of the mutual covenants and agreements contained herein, the parties hereby covenant and agree as follows:

接着是正文泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,最后是证明部分:

IN WITNESS WHEREOF泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,the parties hereto have hereunto set their hands the day and years first above written.

随后还包括当事人和见证人的签字。签字日期一般在英文合同最搬弄是非是找不到的泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

下面列出新加坡、美国、香港和日本的合同格式泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

A. 新加坡

Agreement

THIS AGREEMENT is made the 9th day of August, 2001 between LUCKY INTERNATIONAL LTD, a company incorporated in Singapore and having its registered office at Telek Blongar Rise, Singapore 19569 (hereinfater called "The Company") of the part and JACK Wong (NRIC No._________ /A) of 108 Orchar Road, Singapore 01688 (hereinafter called "The Mangager") of the other part.

WHEREAS:

1. The company is engaged in IT business and requires a person with the necessary qualifications and experience to manage its business.

2. ….

NOW IT IS HEREBY AGREED as follows:

1. The company shall employ the Manager and the Manager shall serve the Company as manager of the Company's IT business for a period of two years commencing on 1st day of September

2. ….

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have set their hand the day and year first above written.

THE SCHEDULE ABOVE REFERRED TO

Duties of Manger

1. To manage, maintain and promote the business of the Company.

2.

3.

SIGNED by Roger Tan

For and on behalf of LUCKY INTERANTIONAL LTD

In the presence of

SIGNED by TERESA WONG

In the presence of

新加坡的通用合同分五部分:

第一部分:称为parties, 主要介绍合同各方的姓名或名称,注册地国及地址泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、邮编及各自在合同的简称泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载?房蚣芤话阄

THIS AGREEMENT is made the ---------__________ day of _____ (month),____ (year) between A _______ (hereinafter called "The Company") of the part and B______, (hereinafter called "The Manager") of the other part.

句子开头THIS AGREEMENT

或CONTRACT和当事人的姓名和名称,都应大写泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。当事人是自然人的,用“of”和其后的住址相连;是法人或非法人单位的泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,用“having its registered office at”和其后注册地址相连泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

第二部分:称为recital。以WHEREAS开头泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,进入叙述部分泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,用陈述正式说明当事人订立合同的原因泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

第三部分:称为habendum泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,正文泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。具体约定当事人的权利和义务泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。正文部分的结束段为:

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have set their hand the day and year first above written.

这段作用相当于中文合同的“双方签字盖章泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,特此为证”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

第四部分:称为schedule或addendum泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,附录泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。是对前述合同部分条款的必要补充泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。不是所有合同都有这一项泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

第五部分:称为attestation,证明部分泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。当事人如果自然人泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,用“SIGNED by __” 英文写作翻译;连接后填写见证姓名的表达部分“In the presence of ____”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;当事人是法人或非法人单位时泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,授权代表后接的是“SIGNED for and on behalf _____ of____”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,然后才是In the presence of _______泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。与中文合同的显著不同是签章处除当事人外,多了一个In the presence of _______供证人签字之处。另一不同的是合同订立日期没有放在合同最后泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,而是出现在开头段的当事人介绍部分泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

第五部分在新加坡还有另一种表达

As Witness our Hands this _____day of _____,in the year of our Lord Tow Thousand and One.

Signed, sealed, and delivered by the above named

In the presence of

Signature

Address

Occupation

上述合同的格式很有代表性泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,其它英文格式与之相比大同大异,有的合同中不含附录泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。


B. 美国

APPOINTMENT AS CONTRACT FULL-TIME SENIOR CUSTOMS ADMINISTRATOR

AN AGREEMENT FOR SERVICES made the 1st day of September, 2000 between ______ of _____ (address)(hereinafter referred to as "the Company") as one part and Mr._______ of _______(address) (hereinafter referred to as the Contractor) of the other part.

WHEREBY IT IS AGREED AND DECLARED AS FOLLOWS:

1. THAT the Company shall …

2. This agreement shall commence on ….

3.

4.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, both parties set their hands on the date herein mentioned

SIGNED BY

Name :

Designation :

For and on behalf of : (signature)

Contractor :

Designation :

For and on behalf of : (signature)

本合同分为四个大部分(缺附录泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,schedule)泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。与上一合同基本相同,但第一段没有谓语,不是个完整的句子泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。个别用词与前一合同有差别泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。最后落款处还多了了“职务”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,即designation(有的合同还惯用position).

C. 香港

CONTRACT

CONTACT NO.

SIGNING DATE/PLACE

THE BUYER: Name

Legal Address

Contact

THE SELLER: Name

Legal Address

Contact

This contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller.

Whereby the Buyer agrees o buy and the Seller agrees to sell the under-mentioned commodity according to the terms and conditions.

1. NAME OF COMMODITY AND SCOPE OF THE CONTRACT
2. PRICE
3. PAYMENT译
4. PACKING
5.

IN WITHNESS WHEREOF, this contract has been executed effective as of the date first above written.

THE BUYER THE SELLER

___________ ___________

By:__________ By:__________

Date:------------_________ Date:------------_________

THE END USER

___________

By: __________

Date: --------____-_________

比起前两个合同,该买卖合同的不同之处于在于泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,合同开头出现了合同编号和签署日期泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,当事人名称或姓名采用简单列举式泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。证明部分用完成时被动态泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,最后落款处SIGNED BY项目,但增加了最终用户一项泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。


D. 日本

SERVICE AGREEMENT

This agreement is made and entered into on March 1st ,2001, by and between______ LTD (hereinafter referred to as "PARTY A"), and ________CO., LTD. ((hereinafter referred to as "PARTY B")

WITNESSTH:

WHEREAS, PARTY B has requested by PARTY A to dispatch its personal for the purpose of _______ to PARTY b; and

WHEREAS, (PARTY A is willing to dispatch its personnel t PARTY B in response to such PARTY B's request)

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual promises and covenants herein contained , the parties hereto agree as follows:

1.
2.
3.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be executed by their respective duly authorized officers as of the date first herinabove written.

______ Ltd. ________ Co., Ltd.

(signature) (signature)

MANAGING DIRECTOR MANAGING DIRECTOR

该合同也由四大部分构成泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,与上述合同最大的不同在于泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,在叙述部分上端加了一个WITNESSETH(鉴于),最后落款处也没有SIGNED BY 项目泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,但授权签字代表的职位真接打出来泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,放在签字的下一行泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。别外泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,当事人的简称部分用的都是大写泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

相比之下泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,英文合同除个别地方外泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,整个合同的段落排列泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,句式和用词大同小异泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。在草拟英文合同时泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,只要仿用上述任何一个泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,都算是地道的英文表达泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

用词特点(formal term)

合同英语的用词极其考究泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,具有特定性。要求选词专业化(professional)、正式(formal)泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、准确(accurate)泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。具体体现在下列方面:

1. May, shall, must ,may not (或shall not) 的使用 泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,May, shall , must ,may not (或shall not)对学过英语的人再熟悉不过,但在合同中用这些词时要极其谨慎。权利义务的约见定部分构成了合同的主体泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。这几个词如选用不当泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,可能会引起纠纷。

may 旨在约定当事人的权利(可以做什么)泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,Shall约定当事人的义务(应当做什么时候), must 用于强制性义务(必须做什么),may not (或shall not)用于禁止性义务(不得做什么)泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。May do 不能说成can do泛亚电竞app|最新版下载, shall do, 不能说成should do 或ought to do, may not do 在美国一些法律文件可以用shall not泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,但绝不能用can not do或must not ) 例如,在约定解决争议的途径时的泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,可以说
The parties hereto shall, first of all, settle any dispute arising from or in connection with the contract by friendly negotiations.

Should such negotiations fail, such dispute may be referred to the People's Court having jurisdiction on such dispute for settlement in the absence of any arbitration clause in the disputed contract or in default of agreement reached after such dispute occurs.

本句中的shall 和may表达准确泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。出现争议后应当先行协商泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,所以采用了义务性“约定”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,如果协商解决不了泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,作为当事人的权利泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,用选择性约定may也很妥当泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。如果may和shall调换位置会怎么样泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载? 前半句的shall换用may后泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,意思变成了当事人可以通过协商解决泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,意思上说得过去,但后半句的may换用shall 后泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,变成了应当诉讼解决泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,好象一出事泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,就要先见官泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,这就有些不友好了。

本句可译:双方首先应通过友好协商,解决因合同而发生的或与合同有关的争议。如果协商未果泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,合同中又无仲裁条款约定或争议发生后未就仲裁达成协方的泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,可将争议提交有管辖权的人民法院解决。

2. 正式用语(formal term)

合同英语有着严肃的风格泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,与其它英语作品有很大不同泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

例如:

“因为”的短语多用“by virtue of ",远远多于“due to”一般不用“because of ”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;
“财务年度末”一般用“at the close of the fiscal year”,而不用“in the end of the fiscal year”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;
“在……之前”一般用“prior to”,而不用“before”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;

“关于”常用“as regards”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载, “concerning”或“relating to”,而不会用“about”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;

“事实上”用“in effect”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,而不用“in fact”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;

“开始”用“commencement”,而不用“start”或“begin”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;

“停止做”用“cease to do”,而不用“stop to do”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;

“何时开会并由某某主持”的表述为:The meeting shall be convened and presided by sb.

其中“召开”不用“hold 或call”,而用“convene”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载; “主持”不用“chair”或“be in charge of ”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,而用“preside”;

“其他事项”用“miscellaneous”, 而不用“other matters/events”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;

“理解合同”用“construe a contract” 或“comprehend a contract”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,而不用“understand a contract”;

“认为”用“deem”,用“consider”少泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,不用“think”或“believe”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载;

“愿意做”用“intend to do”或“desire to do”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,而不用“want to do”, “wish to do”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

三、用词专业(technical terms)

合同用词不以大众是否理解和接受为转移泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,它是合同语言准确表达的保障泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。如合同出现的“瑕疵”、 “救济”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、 “不可抗力”、 “管辖”、“损毁”、 “灭失”等就可能让非行业人士费解泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,在英语以上表达分别为defect泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、remedy、force majuere/Act of God泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、jurisdiction、damage and/or loss)。另外几乎每个合同都少不了hereinafter referred to as , whereas, in witness whereof, for and on behalf of , hereby, thereof 等虚词泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。这也是合同英语的一大特色泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

其它例子还有:

“赔偿”用“indemnities”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,而不用“compensation”

“不动产转让”用“conveyance”,而不用“transfer of real estate”

“房屋出租”用“tenancy”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,而“财产出租”用“lease of property”

“停业”用“wind up a business”或“cease (名词是cessation) a business”,而不用“end/stop a business”

专利许可中的“特许权使用费”只用“royalities”

还款或专利申请的“宽限期”英文“grace”,

“当事人在破产中的和解”用“composition”

以实物出资为“investment in kind”

“依照合同相关规定”一般说“pursuant to provisions contained herein”或“as provided herein”等泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,不说“according to relevant terms and conditions in the contract”

“合同任何一方当事人不得转让本合同”英文表述为“Neither party hereto may assign this contract”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,其中“hereto”表示“to the contract”,选用“Neither party to the contract”较少。

3. 同义词、近义词泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载、相关词的序列

FOR value RECEIVED,the undersigned does hereby sell, transfer, assign and set over to ______ all his right, tile and interest in and to a certain contract dated ______, 19____ by and between the undersigned and ______泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,a copy of which is annexed hereto.

在这里的同义词和近义词并列(如sell, transfer, assign and set over泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,right和 tile and interest),在英文合同里十分普遍。这是出于严谨和杜绝漏洞的考虑泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,有的也属于合同用语的固定模式泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。如:

This agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.句中“made and entered into”和“by and between”两组分别属于同义词和相关词并列泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

For and in consideration of mutual covenants and agreements contained herein, the parties hereby covenant and agree as follows: 句中“for and in consideration of ”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载, “covenants and agreements”三组同义司和近义词并列。

The parties have agreed to vary the Management on the terms and subject to the conditions contained herein. 这里的“on the terms”和“subject to the conditions”是一个意思都表示“依照本协议的条款规定”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。合同条款的固定模式是“terms and conditions”

再例如:

“Party A wishes to be released and discharged from agreement as from the effective date”泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,一句中的“release”和“discharge”意思几乎相同泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载。

并列的词还有:

ships and vessels
support and maintenance
licenses and permits
charges, fees, costs and expenses
any and all
any duties, obligations or liabilities
the partners, their heirs, successors and assigns
control and management of the partnership
applicable laws, regulations, decrees, directives, and rules

5. 拉丁词

在国外合同中泛亚电竞app|最新版下载泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,拉丁词仍然是很常见:

比例税率:用pro rate tax rate要比proportional tax rate多

从事慈善性服务的律师:pro bono lawyer泛亚电竞app|最新版下载,不怎么用lawyer engaged in charitable legal assistance

委托代理人:多用agent ad litem。



 
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